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The CIBO Model

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What is the SALUS Model

The mechanistic crop and environment model that CIBO uses for simulations is called SALUS (system approach for land use sustainability). SALUS is capable of simulating the performance of various crops at many scales to help farmers decide the best management practice to use on their fields. SALUS is able to simulate the effects of crop rotation, land management strategies, and weather on crop growth and yield, soil organic matter, nitrogen dynamics, and heat balance.

The initial version of SALUS was developed at Michigan State University by CIBO co-founder Bruno Basso and has been the subject of 20 years of testing across hundreds of fields in 46 countries, more than 25 PhD dissertations, over 230 peer-reviewed journal articles, and thousands of academic citations. CIBO has an exclusive commercial license to SALUS which it has continuously been improving, expanding to new crops, and scaling to address practical needs of agriculture from subfield to continental scales.

Explore Academic Articles on SALUS

  • Albarenque, S.M., Basso, B., Caviglia, O.P., Melchiori, R.J. (2016). Spatio-temporal nitrogen fertilizer response in maize: field study and modeling approach. Agronomy Journal, 108(5), 2110. doi: 10.2134/agronj2016.02.0081
  • Partridge, T.F., Winter, J.M., Liu, L., Kendall, A.D., Basso, B., Hydnman, D. (2019). Mid-20th century warming hole boosts U.S. maize yields. Environmental Research Letters. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab422b 
  • Senthilkumar, S., B. Basso, A. N. Kravchenko, and G. P. Robertson. 2009. “Contemporary Evidence of Soil Carbon Loss in the U.s. Corn Belt.” Soil Science Society of America Journal. Soil Science Society of America 73 (6): 2078–86.
  • Basso, Bruno, and Joe T. Ritchie. n.d. “Simulating Crop Growth and Biogeochemical Fluxes in Response to Land Management Using the SALUS Model.”
  • Martinez‐Feria, Rafael, and Bruno Basso. 2020. “Predicting Soil Carbon Changes in Switchgrass Grown on Marginal Lands under Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies.” Global Change Biology. Bioenergy 12 (9): 742–55.
  • Pezzuolo, Andrea, Benjamin Dumont, Luigi Sartori, Francesco Marinello, Massimiliano De Antoni Migliorati, and Bruno Basso. 2017. “Evaluating the Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Soil Organic Carbon at the Farm Scale.” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 135 (April): 175–82.
  • Liu, Lin, and Bruno Basso. 2020. “Impacts of Climate Variability and Adaptation Strategies on Crop Yields and Soil Organic Carbon in the US Midwest.” PloS One 15 (1): e0225433.
  • Tolomio, Massimo, Nicola Dal Ferro, Maurizio Borin, and Bruno Basso. 2018. “Simulating Soil Carbon Dynamics and Crop Production in Organic Farming Systems,” November.
  • Basso, B., J. T. Ritchie, P. R. Grace, and L. Sartori. 2006. “Simulating Tillage Impacts on Soil Biophysical Proprerties Using the SALUS Model” 3 (December): 1–10.

The Science Behind CIBO

Learn more about the science and leaders behind CIBO’s technology.

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